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Urine Drug Test

The rapid drug test through urine allows you to check the presence of drugs in the body in a few minutes, it is a rapid chromatographic immunoassay for the detection qualitative of multiple drugs and their metabolites in urine at the following cut-off concentrations. The drug test can detect from 1 substance to 12 substances. Each result is specific to the substance being analyzed. the drug test can analyze: Cocaine and metabolites, Ketamine, Methamphetamine, MDMA (Ecstasy), Marijuana (including cannabinoids THC), Methadone, Oxycodone, Benzodiazepines, Synthetic K2 drugs, Buprenorphine, Tramadol, Opiates (including Heroin Morphine and metabolites), etc… The drug test is a rapid urine test that can be performed without the use of any instrumentation. The test uses monoclonal antibodies to selectively detect elevated levels of specific drugs in the urine. Acetaminophen (ACE): Acetaminophen is one of the most commonly used drugs, and is also an important cause of serious liver damage. Acetaminophen is the generic name of a drug found under many over-the-counter (OTC) drug trade names such as Tylenol and prescription (Rx) drugs such as Vicodin and Percocet. Acetaminophen is an important drug and its effectiveness in relieving pain and fever is widely recognized. Unlike other drugs commonly used to reduce pain and fever (e.g. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, ibuprofen and naproxen), at the recommended doses, acetaminophen does not cause side effects, such as stomach problems and bleeding. and is considered safe when used according to the OTC or Rx package instructions. However, taking more than the recommended dose can cause liver damage, from abnormal blood tests for liver function, to severe liver failure and even death. Many cases of overdose are caused by the involuntary intake of a higher than recommended dose (4g per day) of a particular product, or by taking more than one product containing acetaminophen (eg. An OTC and an X-ray with acetaminophen). The liver damage mechanism is not linked to acetaminophen itself, but to the production of a toxic metabolite. The toxic metabolite binds to liver proteins, causing cell damage. The ability of the liver to remove this metabolite before it binds to its proteins influences the level of liver damage. The Multi-Drug Quick Test provides a positive result when the concentration of Acetaminophen in urine exceeds 5,000 ng/mL. Amphetamine (AMP): Amphetamine is a Schedule II substance of the American DEA sold by prescription (Dexedrina®) and also available illegally on the market. Amphetamines are a class of potent sympathomimetic agents with therapeutic functions. They are chemically linked to two catecholamines naturally produced by the human body: epinephrine and norepinephrine. High acute doses induce stimulation of the central nervous system (CNS) and cause euphoria, lucidity, decreased appetite and a sense of greater energy and power. Cardiovascular reactions to Amfetatime include increased blood pressure and cardiac arrhythmias. More acute reactions cause anxiety, paranoia, hallucinations and psychotic behavior. The effects of amphetamines generally last 2-4 hours after use and the drug has a half-life of 4-24 hours in the human body. About 30% of amphetamines are eliminated in the urine in unchanged form, with a residue in the form of hydroxylated and deaminated derivatives. The drug test indicates positive results when the concentration of amphetamines in the urine exceeds the detection levels. Barbiturates (BAR): Barbiturates are CNS sedatives. They are used in medicine as sedatives, hypnotics and anticonvulsants. Barbiturates are almost always taken orally in capsule or tablet form. The effects resemble those of alcohol intoxication. Chronic use of barbiturates leads to tolerance and physical dependence. Short-acting barbiturates taken in doses of 400 mg/day for 2-3 months can induce a significant clinical degree of physical dependence. Withdrawal symptoms experienced during drug-free periods can be severe and can lead to death. Only a small fraction (less than 5%) of most barbiturates is excreted unchanged in the urine. The approximate times of detection for barbiturates are: Short-acting (eg. Secobarbital) 100 mg po (oral) 4.5 days. Long-acting (eg, phenobarbital) 400 mg po (oral) 7 days. The drug test indicates positive results when the concentration of barbiturates in the urine exceeds the detection level. Benzodiazepines (BZO): Benzodiazepines are medicines frequently prescribed for the symptomatic treatment of anxiety and sleep disorders. They produce their effects via specific receptors involving a neurochemical called gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA). Due to their increased safety and efficacy, benzodiazepines have replaced barbiturates in the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Benzodiazepines are also used as sedatives before surgery and medical procedures and for the treatment of seizures and alcohol withdrawal. The risk of physical dependence increases if benzodiazepines are taken regularly (e.g. daily) for several months, especially in higher than normal doses. Stopping taking it suddenly can lead to symptoms such as sleep problems, gastrointestinal disorders, malaise, loss of appetite, sweating, tremor, weakness, anxiety and alterations in perception. Only traces (less than 1%) of most benzodiazepines are excreted unchanged in the urine; most of the concentration in the urine is in the form of conjugated drug. The detection period for benzodiazepines in urine is 3-7 days. The urine drug test indicates positive results when the concentration of benzodiazepines in the urine exceeds the detection levels. Buprenorphine (BUP): Buprenorphine is a potent pain reliever often used in the treatment of opiate addiction. The substance is sold under the trade names of Subutex ™, Buprenex ™, Temgesic ™ and Suboxone ™, which contain Buprenorphine HCI alone or in combination with Naloxone HCI. From a therapeutic point of view, buprenorphine is used as a replacement treatment for opiate addicts. Substitution treatment is a form of therapy offered to opiate addicts (mainly heroin addicts) based on a substance similar or identical to the drug used normally. In replacement therapy, buprenorphine is as effective as methadone but exhibits a lower level of physical dependence. Free urine concentrations of buprenorphine or norbuprenorphine may be less than 1 ng/mL after therapeutic administration, but may vary up to 20 ng/mL in abused conditions. The plasma half-life of Buprenorphine is 2-24 hours. Instead, the complete elimination of a single dose of the drug can take up to 6 days, the window of detection of the parent drug in the urine is approximately 3 days. Abuse of buprenorphine has also been identified in many countries where other forms of this drug are available. The drug has been diverted from legal channels through theft, multiple prescriptions and fraudulent prescriptions, and is taken intravenously, sublingually, intranasally, and inhaled. The urine drug test indicates positive results when the concentration of buprenorphine in the urine exceeds the detection level. Cocaine (COC): Cocaine is a powerful stimulant of the central nervous system and a local anesthetic. Initially, it causes extreme energy and restlessness but gradually becomes tremor, hypersensitivity and spasms. Cocaine, taken in high doses, causes fever, loss of sensation, difficulty in breathing and loss of consciousness. Cocaine is often self-administered by nasal inhalation, intravenous injection and free-base smoking. It is eliminated in the urine over a short period of time mainly as benzoylecgonine.3,4 Benzoylecgonine, the major metabolite of cocaine, has a longer biological half-life (5-8 hours) than cocaine (0.5-1.5 hours) and it can usually be detected for 24 to 48 hours after taking cocaine. The drug test indicates positive results when the benzoylecgonine concentration in the urine exceeds the detection level. Marijuana (THC): THC (9-tetrahydrocannabinol) is the main active ingredient in cannabis (marijuana). When smoked or administered orally, THC produces euphoria. Those who use it have short-term memory damage and slow learning. You may also experience transient episodes of confusion and anxiety. Relatively heavy and long-term use can be associated with behavioral disorders. The peak effect of marijuana administered by smoking occurs within 20-30 minutes and the duration is 90-120 minutes after a cigarette. After hours of exposure, high levels of metabolites can be found in the urine, which remain for 3-10 hours after smoking. The major metabolite eliminated in the urine is 11-nor-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH). The urine drug test indicates positive results when the concentration of THC-COOH in the urine exceeds the detection level. Methadone (MTD): Methadone is a narcotic analgesic prescribed for the treatment of severe to moderate pain and for the treatment of opiate addiction (Heroin, Vicodin, Percocet, Morphine). oral is very different from that of Methadone IV. Oral methadone is partially stored in the liver for later use. Methadone IV has an action more similar to heroin. In most states it is necessary to go to a pain clinic or SERT to get a prescription for Methadone. Methadone is a long-acting pain reliever that produces effects that last twelve to forty-eight hours. Ideally, methadone relieves the client of the pressures of obtaining heroin illegally, the dangers of injection and the emotional ups and downs caused by many opiates. Methadone, when taken for long periods and in high doses, can induce a very long period of addiction. The addictive effects of methadone are more prolonged and problematic than those caused by heroin, however the phased replacement and removal of methadone is a method of detoxification commonly accepted by patients and doctors. The Multi-Drug Rapid Test Cassette indicates positive results when the concentration of Methadone in the urine exceeds the detection level. Methamfetamine (MET): MetAmphetamine is a stimulant drug that energetically activates certain brain systems. MetAmphetamine is very similar chemically to Amphetamine, but its effects on the central nervous system are greater. MetAmphetamine is produced in illegal laboratories and has a high potential for abuse and addiction. The drug can be taken orally, injected or inhaled. High acute doses induce excessive stimulation of the central nervous system, euphoria, lucidity, reduced appetite and a sense of increased energy and power. Cardiovascular reactions to methamphetamine include increased blood pressure and cardiac arrhythmias. More acute reactions cause anxiety, paranoia, hallucinations, psychotic behavior, and ultimately depression and exhaustion. The effects of methamphetamine generally last 2-4 hours and the drug has a half-life of 9-24 hours in the human body. Methamphetamine is eliminated in the urine mainly as amphetamine and oxidized and deaminated derivatives. However, 10-20% of the methamphetamine is eliminated unchanged. Therefore, the presence of the parent compound in urine indicates a use of methamphetamine. Methamphetamine is usually detectable in the urine for 3-5 days, depending on the pH level of the urine. The Multi-Drug Rapid Test Cassette can be performed without additional instrumentation. The test uses a monoclonal antibody to selectively detect high levels of methamphetamine in the urine. The drug test indicates positive results when the urine methamphetamine concentration exceeds the detection level. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) is a designer drug first synthesized in 1914 by a German pharmaceutical company for the treatment of obesity. Those who take it frequently have experienced side effects, such as increased muscle tension and sweating. MDMA is clearly not a stimulant, although it has the ability to increase blood pressure and heart rate in common with amphetamine.MDMA produces some changes in perception by increasing sensitivity to light, difficulty concentrating and blurred vision in some subjects. It is thought that its mechanism of action occurs through the neurotransmitter serotonin. MDMA can also release dopamine, although the general opinion is that this is a secondary effect of the drug (Nichols and Oberlender, 1990). The main effect of MDMA, which has probably occurred in anyone who has taken a reasonable dose, is to produce a contraction of the jaws. The Multi-Drug Rapid Test Cassette indicates positive results when the concentration of methylenedioxymethamphetamine in the urine exceeds the detection level. Morphine (MOP): The term opiate refers to any substance derived from the opium poppy, including natural products, morphine, codeine and semi-synthetic drugs such as heroin. The term opioid is more generic and refers to any drug that acts as an opioid receptor. Opioid analgesics comprise a large group of substances that control pain by sedating the CNS. High doses of morphine can produce high levels of tolerance, physiological dependence and can lead to substance abuse. Morphine is eliminated without being metabolized and is also the major metabolic product of codeine and heroin. Morphine is detectable in the urine for several days after an opioid dose. The drug test indicates positive results when the concentration of morphine in the urine exceeds the detection level. Morphine/Opioid (OPI): The Multi-Drug rapid multiple test indicates positive results when the concentration of Morphine in urine exceeds 2,000 ng/mL. This is the suggested analysis limit threshold for positive samples established by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA, USA). See Morphine (MOP 300) for the summary. Metaqualone (MQL): Metaqualone (Quaalude, Sopor) is a quinazoline derivative first synthesized in 1951 and found clinically effective as a sedative and hypnotic in 1956.10 It quickly gained popularity as a drug of abuse and in 1984 was taken off the US market due to excessive misuse. It is sometimes found in illicit form and is also available in some European countries in association with diphenhydramine (Mandrax). Metaqualone is extensively metabolised in vivo mainly by hydroxylation in every possible position on the molecule. At least 12 metabolites have been identified in the urine. Phencyclidine (PCP): Phencyclidine, also known as PCP or Angel’s Dust, is a hallucinogen initially placed on the market as a surgical anesthetic in the 1950s. It was withdrawn from the market because the patients it was administered to were delirious and experienced hallucinations. PCP is used in the form of powder, capsules and tablets. The powder is inhaled or smoked after mixing it with marijuana or plant substances. PCP is commonly administered by inhalation but can also be used intravenously, intranasally, and orally. Following small doses, those who use it think and act quickly and experience mood swings from euphoria to depression. Self-destructive behavior is one of the worst effects of PCP. PCP can be detected in the urine 4 to 6 hours after use and remains there for 7-14 days, depending on factors such as the person’s metabolic rate, age, weight, activity, and diet. . PCP is excreted in the urine as an unchanged drug (4% to 19%) and conjugated metabolite (25% to 30%). The urine drug test indicates positive results when the concentration of phencyclidine in the urine exceeds 25 ng/mL. This is the suggested analysis limit threshold for positive samples established by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA, USA). Propoxyphene (PPX): Propoxyphene (PPX) is a narcotic analgesic compound with a structure similar to Methadone. As an analgesic, propoxyphene can be as potent as 50-75% of oral codeine. Darvocet ™, one of the most common trade names for the drug, contains 50-100 mg of propoxyphene napsylate and 325-650 mg of acetaminophen. Peak plasma concentrations of propoxyphene are reached 1-2 hours after the dose. In the event of an overdose, the concentrations of propoxyphene in the blood can reach significantly higher levels. In humans, propoxyphene is metabolised by N-demethylation to norpropoxyphene. Norpropoxyphene has a longer half-life (from 30 to 36 hours) than the parent propoxyphene (from 6 to 12 hours). The accumulation of norpropoxyphene shown with repeated doses can be largely responsible for the resulting toxicity. The multiple drug rapid test indicates positive results when the concentration of propoxyphene or norpropoxyphene in urine exceeds 300 ng/mL. At the moment the Administration of Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services (SAMHSA, USA) has not indicated a cut-off point for the screening of positive samples for propoxyphene. Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs): TCAs (Tricyclic Antidepressants) are commonly used for the treatment of depressive disorders. Overdoses of TCA can cause profound CNS depression, cardiotoxicity, and anticholinergic effects. Overdose of TCA is the leading cause of drug-related death. TCAs are taken orally or sometimes by injection. TCAs are metabolized in the liver. Both TCAs and their metabolites are excreted in the urine in the form of metabolites up to ten days after intake. The Multi-Drug Rapid Test Cassette indicates positive results when the concentration of tricyclic antidepressants in urine exceeds 1,000 ng/mL. At the moment, the Administration of Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services (SAMHSA, USA) has not indicated a cut-off point for the screening of positive samples for tricyclic antidepressants. Tramadol (TML): Tramadol (TML) is a near-narcotic analgesic used in the treatment of moderate to severe pain. It is a synthetic analogue of codeine, but has a low binding affinity with the mu opioid receptors. High doses of Tramadol can induce tolerance and psychological dependence and lead to abuse. Tramadol is extensively metabolised after oral intake. About 30% of the dose is excreted in the urine as an unchanged drug, while 60% of the dose is excreted as metabolites. The main routes appear to be N- and O-demethylation, glucuronidation or sulfation in the liver. The drug test can be performed without additional instrumentation. The test uses a monoclonal antibody to selectively detect high levels of Tramadol in the urine. The Multi-Drug Rapid Test Cassette indicates positive results when the Tramadol concentration in the urine exceeds the detection level. Ketamine (KET): Ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic developed in 1963 to replace PCP (Phencyclidine). While ketamine is still used in human and veterinary anesthesia, it is increasingly being abused as a drug. Ketamine is molecularly similar to PCP and therefore creates similar effects including numbness, loss of coordination, a sense of invulnerability, muscle stiffness, aggressive/violent behavior, confused speech or aphasia, an exaggerated sense of strength and blank stare. It has a depression of the respiratory function but not of the central nervous system and the cardiovascular function is maintained. The effects of Ketamine generally last 4-6 hours after use. Ketamine is excreted in the urine as unchanged drug (2.3%) and metabolites (96.8%). The rapid drug test can be performed without additional instrumentation. The test uses a monoclonal antibody to selectively detect high levels of ketamine in the urine. The drug test indicates positive results when the concentration of ketamine in the urine exceeds the detection level. Oxycodone (OXY): Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opioid with a structure similar to codeine. The drug is produced by modifying thebaine, an alkaloid found in the opium poppy. Oxycodone, like all opiate agonists, provides pain relief by acting on the opioid receptors in the spinal column, brain and probably directly on the affected tissue. Oxycodone is prescribed for the relief of moderate to severe pain under the well-known pharmaceutical trade names of OxyContin®, Tylox®, Percodan® and Percocet®. While Tylox®, Percodan® and Percocet® contain only a small dose of oxycodone hydrochloride combined with other analgesics, such as acetaminophen and aspirin, OxyContin consists exclusively of phased-release oxycodone hydrochloride. Oxycodone metabolizes by demethylation to oxymorphone and noroxycodone. In a 24-hour urine, 33-61% of a single 5 mg oral dose is excreted with the primary drug constituents unchanged (13-19%), drug conjugated (7-29%), and conjugated oxymorphone (13 -14%). The detection window of oxycodone in urine is similar to that of other opioids such as Morphine. The Multiple Drug Rapid Test Cassette can be performed without additional instrumentation. The test uses a monoclonal antibody to selectively detect high levels of Oxycodone in the urine. The Multi-Drug Rapid Test Cassette indicates positive results when the urine Oxycodone concentration exceeds 100ng/mL. Cotinine (COT): Cotinine is the first-degree metabolite of nicotine, a toxic alkaloid that produces stimulation of the autonomic ganglia and central nervous system in humans. Nicotine is a drug to which virtually every member of a smoking society is exposed through both direct contact and passive smoking. In addition to tobacco, nicotine is also commercially available as an active ingredient in smoking therapies such as nicotine gum, transdermal patches, and nasal sprays. In a 24-hour urine, about 5% of a dose of nicotine is excreted as an unchanged drug with 10% cotinine and 35% hydroxycotinine; The concentrations of the other metabolites are believed to account for less than 5% 10 While cotinine is believed to be an inactive metabolite, its elimination profile is more stable than that of nicotine which is largely dependent on urine pH. As a result, cotinine is considered a good biological marker to determine the use of nicotine. The plasma half-life of nicotine is approximately 60 minutes following inhalation or parenteral administration.11 Nicotine and cotinine are rapidly eliminated by the liver; it is believed that the detection window of cotinine in urine at a threshold level of 200 ng/mL is up to 2-3 days after the use of nicotine. The drug test indicates positive results when the Cotinine concentration in the urine exceeds the detection level. 2-Ethylidene-1,5 Dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) Methadone is an unusual drug because its primary metabolites in the urine (EDDP and EMDP) have a cyclic structure, which makes them very difficult to detect using immunoassays targeting the main compound. Compounding this problem is that part of the population classified as “extensive metabolisers” of Methadone. In these subjects, a urine sample may not contain enough mother methadone to give a positive test result even if the individual complies with its maintenance with methadone. EDDP represents a better marker in urine for maintenance with methadone than unmetabolized methadone. The Multi-Drug Rapid Test Cassette indicates positive results when the concentration of EDDP in the urine exceeds the detection level. Fentanyl (FYL): Fentanyl belongs to the powerful narcotic analgesics and is a special opioid stimulating receptor μ. Fentanyl is one of the varieties listed in the 1961 United Nations Single Convention on Narcotics. Among the internationally controlled opioid agents, Fentanyl is one of the most commonly used to treat moderate to severe pain. After continuous injections of Fentanyl, the patient will present the symptoms of a protracted opioid withdrawal syndrome, such as ataxia and irritability, etc… which is addictive after taking Fentanyl for a long time. Compared to amphetamine addicts, Fentanyl addicts have a higher chance of HIV infection, more dangerous injection behavior, and a lifetime need for overdose therapy. The FYL (Urine) rapid test can be performed without additional specific instrumentation. The test uses a monoclonal antibody to selectively detect elevated levels of FYL in the urine. The FYL (urine) rapid test indicates positive results when the concentration of FYL in the urine exceeds the detection level. Synthetic Marijuana (K2): Synthetic Marijuana or K2 is a psychoactive herb and a chemical product that when consumed mimics the effects of Marijuana. It is best known by the trade names of K2 and Spice, both of which are widely used to refer to any synthetic Marijuana product. Studies suggest that synthetic marijuana intoxication is associated with acute psychosis, worsening of previously stable psychotic disorders and may also have the ability to trigger achronic (long-term) psychotic disorders in vulnerable individuals such as those with a family history of mental illness. A few hours after exposure, elevated levels of metabolites are identified in the urine and are more identifiable 72 hours after smoking (depending on use/dosage). As of March 1, 2011, five cannabinoids (JWH -018, JWH- 073, CP- 47, JWH- 200 and il (cannabycyclol hexanol) are considered illegal in the United States because these substances are potentially harmful and, therefore, pose an imminent danger to the public safety. Drug testing indicates positive results when the concentration of the synthetic marijuana metabolite in urine exceeds the detection level. (±) 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA): 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), also known as tenhamphetamine (INN), or by the slang name of “Sally” or “Sass” or “Sass-a-frass”, is a psychedelic and entactogenic drug belonging to the chemical classes of phenethylamine and amphetamine. primarily used as a recreational drug, entheogen, and a tool to aid various types of transcendent activities, including meditation, psychonautics and as an agent in psychedelic psychotherapy. It was first synthesized by G. Mannish and W. Jacob son in 1910. There are about 20 synthesization methods described in the literature for its preparation. Ethyl- β-D-Glucuronide (ETG): Ethyl Glucuronide (ETG) is a metabolite of ethyl alcohol which is formed in the body by glucuronidation as a result of exposure to ethanol, such as the intake of alcoholic beverages. It is used as a biomarker to test ethanol use and monitor alcohol abstinence in situations where alcohol is prohibited, such as in military service, professional monitoring programs (healthcare personnel, lawyers, airline pilots on addiction therapy ), in schools, in liver transplant clinics or in patients undergoing treatment for alcoholism. ETG can be measured in urine for up to about 80 hours following the intake of ethanol. ETG is a more accurate indicator of recent exposure to alcohol than measuring the presence of ethanol itself. The Multi-Drug rapid test provides a positive result when the concentration of Ethyl Glucuronide in the urine exceeds the detection level. Clonazepam (CLO): Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine with anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxing, amnestic, sedative and hypnotic properties. Clonazepam has an intermediate activation of action, which peaks in blood levels one to four hours after oral administration. Long-term effects of benzodiazepines include tolerance, dependence and withdrawal syndrome which occurs in one third of patients treated with clonazepam for more than four weeks. Benzodiazepines such as clonazepam have a faster activation, higher efficacy rate and lower overdose toxicity; however, as in most drugs, they can have drawbacks due to adverse paradoxical effects. The detection period for benzodiazepines in urine is 3-7 days. The drug test gives a positive result when the concentration of benzodiazepines in the urine exceeds the detection level. Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) is a white powder or clear, colorless liquid. LSD is produced from lysergic acid which occurs naturally in the ergot fungus that grows on wheat and rye. It is a Class I controlled substance, available in liquid, powder, tablet (micro-tips) and capsule form. LSD is used for recreational purposes as a hallucinogen due to its ability to alter perception and mood. LSD is mainly used with oral administration, but can be inhaled, injected and applied transdermally. LSD is a non-selective 5-HT agonist, it can exert its hallucinogenic effects by interacting with the 2A 5-HT receptors as a partial agonist and modulating the sensory, perceptual, affective and cognitive processes of the NMDA sense-mediated receptor. LSD mimics 5-HT receptors to 5-HT 1A, producing a marked slowdown in the firing rate of serotonergic neurons. LSD has a plasma half-life of 2.5-4 hours. The metabolites of LSD include N-desmtil-LSD, hydroxy-LSD, 2-oxo-LSD and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD. These metabolites are all inactive. The use of LSD can be detected in the urine for periods of 2-5 days. The urine drug test provides a positive result when the amount of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide in the urine exceeds the detection level. Methylphenidate (MPD): Methylphenidate (Ritalin) is a psychostimulant approved for the treatment of ADHD or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and narcolepsy. Methylphenidate acts primarily as a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Methylphenidate acts mainly on the modulation of dopamine levels and to a lesser extent on norepinephrine. Similar to cocaine, methylphenidate binds to and blocks dopamine and norepinephrine transporters. Methylphenidate has binding affinities with both dopamine and norepinephrine transporters, with the dextromethylphenidate enantiomers showing prominent affinity for the norepinephrine transporter. Methylphenidate can also exert a neuroprotective action against the neurotoxic effects of Parkinson’s disease and the abuse of methamphetamines. Methylphenidate taken orally has a bioavailability of 11-52% with a duration of action of around 1-4 hours with instant release, 3-8 hours with sustained release and 8-12 hours with extended release (Concerta). The half-life of methylphenidate is 2-3 hours, depending on the subject. The peak time in plasma is reached at approximately 2 hours. The urine drug test gives a positive result when the methylphenidate (Ritalin) in the urine exceeds 1000 ng/mL. Zolpidem (ZOL): Zolpidem (trade names Ambien, Ambien CR, Intermezzo, Stilnox, Stilnoct, Sublinox, Hypnogen, Zonadin, Sanval and Zolsana) is a prescription drug used in the treatment of insomnia and some brain disorders1. It is a short-acting hypnotic non-benzodiazepine of the imidazopyridine class that potentiates GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, by binding to GABAA receptors in the same place as benzodiazepines. It works quickly, usually within 15 minutes, and has a short half-life of two to three hours. Zolpidem can be detected in blood or plasma confirming a diagnosis of poisoning in hospitalized patients, constitutes evidence of drunk driving traffic sanctions or can be a valuable aid in medico-legal investigations. Concentrations of Zolpidem in the blood or plasma are usually between 30 and 300 μg/l in people on drug therapy, 100-700 μg/l in those arrested for drunk driving, and 1000-7000 μg/l in victims of acute overdose. Analytical techniques generally include gas chromatography or liquid chromatography3,4,5. The Multi-Drug rapid test provides a positive result when Zolpidem in urine reaches 50ng/ml. What is adulteration: Adulteration is the pollution of a urine sample with the intention of altering the test results. The use of adulterants can cause false negative results in drug tests both by interfering with the test and by destroying the drugs present in the urine. Dilution can also be used in an attempt to produce false negative drug test results. One of the best ways to test for adulteration or dilution is to determine some urinary characteristics such as the pH, specific gravity and creatinine and identify the presence of oxidants/PCC, nitrites or glutaraldehyde in the urine. Oxidants/PCC (Pyridiniumchlorchromate) tests for the presence of oxidizing agents such as bleach and hydrogen peroxide. Pyridiniumchlorchromate (sold under the trade name of Urine Luck) is a commonly used adulterant. Normal human urine should not contain oxidants or PCCs. Specific gravity tests sample dilution. The normal range is between 1.003 and 1.030. Values ​​outside this range may be the result of a dilution or alteration of the sample. pH tests for the presence of acid or alkaline adulterants in the urine. Normal pH levels should range between 4.0 and 9.0. Values ​​outside this range indicate that the sample has been tampered with. Nitrite adulterants commonly used commercially under the name of Klear and Whizzies. They work by oxidizing the major cannabinoid metabolite THC-COOH9. Normal urine should not contain traces of nitrites. Positive results generally indicate the presence of an adulterant. Glutaraldehyde tests for the presence of an aldehyde. Adulterants such as Urin Aid and Clear Choice contain glutaraldehyde which can cause false negative results by breaking the enzyme used in some immunological tests. Glutaraldehyde is not normally found in urine, therefore, its presence in a urine sample generally indicates adulteration. Creatinine is a waste product of creatine, an amino acid contained in muscle tissue and found in urine. A person may try to frustrate a test by drinking excessive amounts of water or diuretics such as herbal teas to “clean” the system. Creatinine and specific gravity are two ways to control this dilution and flushing which are the mechanisms most used to try to circumvent drug testing. Low creatinine levels and specific gravity may indicate diluted urine.

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